Also, while Turing made very important contributions to the fundamentals of computer science, there were others who were working on similar models of computability, such as Alonzo Church. I have great admiration for Turing (especially after having read his biography by Hodges), but I think that if Turing had never come along, we'd still have computers and computer science today.
Turing's most influential work may have been his wartime cryptanalysis, which may have been pivotal in the Allies' victory in WWII. On the other hand, Einstein (and others) urged President Roosevelt to develop nuclear weapons before the Germans did, which certainly influenced today's world in significant ways.
This episode is described in the book Alan Turing: The Enigma, which was the basis for "The Imitation Game" film. I highly recommend this book if you're interested in Turing, cryptography, or the early days of computing. While Turing is best known today for his work on the theoretical underpinnings of computer science (due to the Turing Machine that bears his name), he also worked on the design of one of the early general purpose computers (the ACE) after the war, on voice encryption hardware, and other interesting stuff.
1. Alan Turing: The Enigma by Andrew Hodges
Definitive and detailed biography.
2. Alan M. Turing by Sara Turing
Deeply personal biography of her dead son.
3. The Annotated Turing by Charles Petzold
Turing's famous 1936 explained in detail.
This is the book I remember seeing named in the credits:
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