This is a bit separate from the actual execution in the market, which is called smart order routing, and that just focuses on speed.
The best book on this still seems to be the now almost 10 year old "Algorithmic Trading and DMA" by Barry Johnson. If you want to get a feel for the strategies involved, this is your best bet: https://www.amazon.com/Algorithmic-Trading-DMA-introduction-...
As for job titles, they tend to be generic like "infrastructure developer, strategist" but look for key words like "Smart Order Router, Algorithmic Trading, Index Arb (itrage), statistical arbitrage, market making, dark pool. I put two of those in Morgan Stanley's site and got a bunch of relevant hits. Posting numbers 3119617 3120636 are actual jobs in this space.
A better bet is to just look at job openings for the companies who specialize in this stuff- Virtu, Jump, Hudson River Trading, Citadel Securities, etc...
This book, "Algorithmic Trading and DMA: An introduction to direct access trading strategies" (http://www.amazon.com/Algorithmic-Trading-DMA-introduction-s...) is pretty darn good if you are a programmer. However, if you really meant "quant finance," then others can give you better suggestions :)
edit: I just remembered, Paul Wilmott and Hull have several introductory books if you are interested in what is usually called "quantitative finance." This means how to price options, futures, etc. From what I recall, this does NOT mean using statistical correlations to trade two similar stocks, making market-making models, etc.
Understand this first though: The vast majority of money made in trading is made without anything more than a trivial prediction of the future. Investing is different, but very very few have enough money to make active investing worthwhile.
Start out with "Algorithmic Trading & DMA" by Johnson: http://www.amazon.com/dp/0956399207 If you choose not to, you're better off not reading anything about the actual trading than trying to pick another.. The vast majority of published material is so bad that it'll set you back.
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