Programming: Principles and Practice Using C++, 2nd Ed., Bjarne Stroustrup
C++ Primer, 5th Ed., Stanley Lippman
For a very brief introduction:
A Tour of C++, Bjarne Stroustrup
I haven't been using C++ for a few years now and I needed a quick refresher. While I wouldn't call C++ Primer quick it covers all the basics really well. Great resource for people new to the language.
Once you learn the fundamentals, read Scott Myers. (effective c++, effective modern c++)
What I like about this book is that it teaches you the new C++ way right from the beginning. Rather than walking you through the history of C, it gets you to the modern practices immediately.
Disclaimer: I have only read the first 10% of the book myself, but so far I like it.
The C++ FAQ is really helpful but doesn't seem to be updated to C++11
Fortunately you can refer to Stroustrup's FAQ about C++11
For reference (like libc manpage, basic usage, which header to include):