Clean Code: A Handbook of Agile Software Craftsmanship  is a great book on writing and reading code.
Similarly, Clean Architecture: A Craftsman's Guide to Software Structure and Design  is, no surprise, a book on organizing and architecting software.
Designing Data-Intensive Applications  may be overkill for your situation, but it's a good read to get an idea about how large scale applications function.
The Architecture of Open Source Applications  is a fantastic free resource that walks through how many applications are built. As another comment mentioned, reading code and understanding how other programs are built are great ways to build your "how to do things" repertoire.
Finally, I'd also recommend taking some classes. I started as a self-taught developer, but I've since taken classes both in-person and online that have been a tremendous help. There are many available for free online, and if in-person classes work better for you (motivation, support, resources, etc), definitely go that route. They're a fantastic way to grow.
Robert C. Martin, Clean code: https://www.amazon.com/Clean-Code-Handbook-Software-Craftsma...
Vaughn Vernon, various: https://vaughnvernon.co/?page_id=168
Steve McConnell, Code Complete: https://www.amazon.com/Code-Complete-Practical-Handbook-Cons... 2
Clean coder: https://cleancoders.com/ videos
Hunt and Thomas, The Pragmatic Programmer: https://www.amazon.com/Pragmatic-Programmer-Journeyman-Maste...
Hitchhiker's Guide to Python: https://docs.python-guide.org/
Dustin Boswell The Art of Readable Code: https://www.amazon.com/Art-Readable-Code-Practical-Technique...
John Ousterhout, A Philosophy of Software Design: https://www.amazon.com/Philosophy-Software-Design-John-Ouste... This one looks particularly interesting, thanks AlexCoventry!
Kent Beck, Test Driven Development: https://www.amazon.com/Test-Driven-Development-Kent-Beck/dp/...
Dan Bader, Python Tricks: The Book: https://dbader.org/
Ian Sommerville, Software Engineering: https://www.amazon.com/Software-Engineering-10th-Ian-Sommerv...
Svilen Dobrev, various: http://www.svilendobrev.com/rabota/
Clean Code: A Handbook of Agile Software Craftsmanship
This book really helped me focus on code organization and seeing maintainable code as an overall goal whilst building long-term applications. I'd say that one of the reasons why the work I've done 3-4 years ago can still be used, expanded, and maintained today is because of this book. Short functions, code organization, and naming conventions all stuck with me.
I'd say that unlike other programming books, this one focuses on the "art" and "organization" rather than syntax and other aspects of programming.
The Pragmatic Programmer: From Journeyman to Master
This book tackled real-world application building and practices. I'm still reading it. I liked how it tackled not only some basics of programming (resource management practices) but also project management to a certain extent. Eg. how to use prototypes, how to use "trace bullet" programs, etc.
Game Programming Patterns
I think one of my favorites has been "Game Programming Patterns" http://gameprogrammingpatterns.com/ which is free online or you can get an ebook/print version http://amzn.to/2veRdiO
The book introduces several basic design patterns, it explains WHY they're used, how to implement them, etc. in the best way I've read so far. No CS book or online article has been able to explain these patterns as this book did.
And I'm not even a game developer.
Also, check out this post on dev.to -- https://dev.to/ben/what-are-the-most-interesting-readable-so... it has some good answers! :)
The suggested reading for that course is a book that blew my mind when I first saw it as an undergrad: Clean Code by Robert Cecil Martin. I believe the examples are all Java, but the lessons are applicable to any language. Stuff like naming your variables more carefully than you name your children.
The second thing that has really influenced my coding style for the better (making it clearer and easier to understand) is writing a medium-sized program using a strictly functional language like Erlang. This will force you to use global state less, to write functions in such a manner that the function itself includes all the information required to understand it, simply because global state cannot be used and everything on which the function operates must be passed into it explicitly via its parameters.
 Clean Code (Robert Martin)
 Refactoring (Martin Fowler)
A Pattern Language, Alexander and Ishikawa and Silverstein http://amzn.to/2s9aSSc
Advanced Programming in the Unix Environment , Stevens http://amzn.to/2qPOMjN
Algorithmics: the Spirit of Computing, Harel http://amzn.to/2rW5FNS
Applied Crytography, Wiley http://amzn.to/2rsULxS
Clean Code, Martin http://amzn.to/2sIOWtQ
Clean Coder, Martin http://amzn.to/2rWgbEP
Code Complete, McConnel http://amzn.to/2qSUIwE
Code: The Hidden Language of Computer Hardware and Software, Petzold http://amzn.to/2rWfR9d
Coders at Work, Seibel http://amzn.to/2qPCasZ
Compilers: Principles, Techniques, & Tools, Aho http://amzn.to/2rCSUVA
Computer Systems: A Programmer's Perspective, O'Hallaron and Bryant http://amzn.to/2qPY5jH
Data Flow Analysis: Theory and Practice, Khedker http://amzn.to/2qTnSvr
Dependency Injection in .NET, Seemann http://amzn.to/2rCz0tV
Domain Driven Design, Evans http://amzn.to/2sIGM4N
Fundamentals of Wireless Communication, Tse and Viswanath http://amzn.to/2rCTmTM
Genetic Programming: An Intrduction, Banzhaf http://amzn.to/2s9sdut
Head First Design Patterns, O'Reilly http://amzn.to/2rCISUB
Implementing Domain-Driven Design, Vernon http://amzn.to/2qQ2G5u
Intrduction to Algorithms, CLRS http://amzn.to/2qXmSBU
Introduction to General Systems Thinking, Weinberg http://amzn.to/2qTuGJw
Joy of Clojure, Fogus and Houser http://amzn.to/2qPL4qr
Let over Lambda, Hoyte http://amzn.to/2rWljcp
Operating Systems: Design and Implementation, Tanenbaum http://amzn.to/2rKudsw
Parsing Techniques, Grune and Jacobs http://amzn.to/2rKNXfn
Peopleware: Productive Projects and Teams, DeMarco and Lister http://amzn.to/2qTu86F
Programming Pearls, Bentley http://amzn.to/2sIRPe9
Software Process Design: Out of the Tar Pit, McGraw-Hill http://amzn.to/2rVX0v0
Software Runaways, Glass http://amzn.to/2qT2mHn
Sorting and Searching, Knuth http://amzn.to/2qQ4NWQ
Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs, Abelson and Sussman http://amzn.to/2qTflsk
The Art of Unit Testing, Manning http://amzn.to/2rsERDu
The Art of Unix Programming, ESR http://amzn.to/2sIAXUZ
The Design of Design: Essays from a Computer Scientist, Brooks http://amzn.to/2rsPjev
The Effective Engineer, Lau http://amzn.to/2s9fY0X
The Elements of Style, Strunk and White http://amzn.to/2svB3Qz
The Healthy Programmer, Kutner http://amzn.to/2qQ2MtQ
The Linux Programming Interface, Kerrisk http://amzn.to/2rsF8Xi
The Mythical Man-Month, Brooks http://amzn.to/2rt0dAR
The Practice of Programming, Kernighan and Pike http://amzn.to/2qTje0C
The Pragmatic Programmer, Hunt and Thomas http://amzn.to/2s9dlvS
The Psychology of Computer Programming, Weinberg http://amzn.to/2rsPypy
Transaction Processing: Concepts and Techniques, Gray and Reuter http://amzn.to/
Types and Programming Languages, Pierce http://amzn.to/2qT2d6G
Understanding MySQL Internals, Pachev http://amzn.to/2svXuFo
Working Effectively with Legacy Code, Feathers http://amzn.to/2sIr09R
Zen of graphics programming, Abrash http://amzn.to/2rKIW6Q
- behind any given reason, there is a complex network of real reasons. You don't need to second-guess any decision/order/suggestion, but it helps understanding.
- most user stories / user requests are raw diamonds waiting to be polished. ("What do they really want me to solve")
Essential reading list:
- Clean Coder and Clean Code https://www.amazon.com/Clean-Code-Handbook-Software-Craftsma... https://www.amazon.com/Clean-Coder-Conduct-Professional-Prog...
- Test Driven Development by Kent Beck https://www.amazon.com/Test-Driven-Development-Kent-Beck/dp/...
and clean coder
If you follow the (admittedly pretty extreme) advice in these books you will be in the top 10% at least.
The examples you provided (with some context gleaned from your other comments) look like they're probably too long and tack on unnecessary domain specific detail (e.g. jsonStates).
Both variables in your example would likely be better off describing the use of the variable rather than the contents. E.g. use ageInYears rather than yearsAliveInt. Taking it to your example, perhaps something along the lines of convertedDocument would do, this is significantly shorter than your example, but perhaps conveys enough info for your ongoing usage.
This is covered to in Clean Code . "The name of a variable, function, or class, should answer all the big questions. It should tell you why it exists, what it does, and how it is used." The notes on the naming chapter at  are quite good as well (as noted elsewhere on this thread by @runesoerensen)
I like to follow the principle in naming variables that if I could read the code to a non-technical user verbatim and have them understand the code, it is "good code". I.e. does reading the code out loud as a sentence make sense, or do the verbs and nouns I've chosen act as a barrier to understanding.
Ward Cunningham said that last part better:
“You know you are working on clean code when each routine you read turns out to be pretty much what you expected. You can call it beautiful code when the code also makes it look like the language was made for the problem.”
 Martin, Robert C. (2008-08-01). Clean Code: A Handbook of Agile Software Craftsmanship (p. 18). Pearson Education. Kindle Edition. https://www.amazon.com/Clean-Code-Handbook-Software-Craftsma...
my fave is clean code... though uncle bob seems divisive these days for some reason.
Length, in either direction, does not correlate to "clean". Clarity and intent does. Clean Coder (http://www.amazon.ca/Clean-Code-Handbook-Software-Craftsmans...) does a fantastic job talking about this, it's worth picking up if you haven't read it in the past.
You can learn how to create clean, readable methods and classes with a book (1).
You can learn how to refactor old methods and classes with a book (2).
You can learn how to organize a small team to allow fast iterations with many books.
But building a project lasting more than a few months with constant changes in the requirements, new developers every month, new SDKs and frameworks every 3 days, without the code rotting to death and everything going out of control is a different story, at least for me.
I guess you just learn by watching old guys do what they do after decades of experience...unless someone has a magic book for me?
Uncle Bob in particular (the author of Clean Code, The Clean Coder, and the Clean Coders videos) is a lot like Wozniak.
You cannot sit and review each commit, the best you can do is to make them care about code.
 - http://www.amazon.com/Clean-Code-Handbook-Software-Craftsman...
 - http://www.amazon.com/Clean-Coder-Conduct-Professional-Progr...
Want to steadily improve on non-production code? Try codewars.com: you're asked to solve 5-30min coding exercises and after can immediately browse the solutions of your peers. The short feedback loop helps you understand how you could've improved while the code is still fresh in your head.
As someone who once read the Sun Java Style Coding  (which at a quick glance, appears to be a super set of the Google style guidelines) standard years ago and found it exciting and very helpful material, I unfortunately did not get such a kick skimming through this. Perhaps it's because after having read Clean Code , I feel that there is much missing that can lend itself to better code.
You should read it..
PS. It's the book Code Clean ;)
Books such as "Code Complete" and "Clean Code" should help you with that transition.
I highly recommend this book: http://www.amazon.com/Clean-Code-Handbook-Software-Craftsman... as it changed my life when it comes to software development. I have a real problem with commenting everywhere as most of the time you'll find a lot of public String getName() with like a comment of //Gets the name, uh, durr its name is get name! If you create concise methods with one general purpose you can create very readable code. Definitely check the book out, it is a very good read.
Comments often tend to explain the same thing as the code exactly does and what you see w/o looking at the comment. Also, they tend to be forgotten - if someone changes the code, he/she often doesn't change the comment.
As a result, you'll have an outdated comment which can confuse you.
I recommend "Clean Code" for more info on this subject. Beside other chapters, there's a chapter about what's a good and what's a bad comment.
I have found that when I can't find a good name for a method or a class, it's because I haven't really thought the reason for the same through. This is especially true for classes where I often realize that I am making the class do too much, or too little.
This book, "Clean Code" by Robert Martin has it's second chapter dedicated to naming things. A whole chapter! The book, alone for that chapter is worth the money. If you haven't read it, I highly recommend it.
I'd recommend these books, mixed with some searching around for best practices for whatever specific framework/language/toolkit you are writing code with.
Refactoring to Patterns
"Clean Code" by Robert Martin is one of the best programming books ever written, and it barely has any code in it. However, it is relevant for every programming language. He treats unit tests like mandatory rituals, though, and unfortunately, I have not progressed quite that far yet. Still, it is a must read and gives good insights into this topic.
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