Just from a search, there are some great results:
1. Mathematics for Computer Science - HN Submissions: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=9311752, https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=3694448
2. How to Read Mathematics - HN Submissions: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=4030812, https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=1576969
Here are some other excellent mathematics books:
1. Mathematics: Its Content, Methods and Meaning
Containing the thoughts and direction of numerous mathematicians including Kolmogorov, this is a great survey of the field of mathematics. It touches upon Analysis, Analytic Geometry, Probability, Linear Algebra, Topology, and more. [1.]
2. Concrete Mathematics: A Foundation for Computer Science
Containing the thoughts and direction of mathematician and computer scientists such as Donald Knuth, this is a great reference for computer science related mathematical concepts focusing on continuous and discrete concepts. [2.]
I thought it was just an advertisement for Computer Concrete Roman (Knuth's other font family) and the Zapf(?) Euler math fonts.
^ Yes, that Ron Graham.
^^ Yes, that Don Knuth.
^^^ I don't recognize Patashnik. Sorry.
I also suggest you to join this Coursera course, Algorithms: Design and Analysis by Tim Roughgarden. Currently the course is open, so you can sign up for classes. The course is offered in two parts, complete both of them.
Once you are comfortable with basic concepts start solving questions/puzzles online on sites like SPOJ, UVa, (YC-funded) HackerRank. You could try TopCoder also, but the questions are bit difficult. Hope this helps.
PS - You should study math, because it is important in Algorithms Analysis. You could try reading required parts of Concrete Mathematics by Knuth or as you come across new concepts, Google and understand them.
 - http://www.amazon.com/dp/8177583581
 - http://www.amazon.com/dp/1848000693
 - https://www.coursera.org/course/algo
 - https://www.coursera.org/course/algo2
 - http://www.spoj.com
 - http://uva.onlinejudge.org
 - http://hackerrank.com
 - http://www.topcoder.com
 - http://www.amazon.com/dp/0201558025
The Graham, Knuth, Patashnik book on concrete mathematics (a bit of a play on words for continuous and discrete) is a quality work as well but written to a considerably higher level that may or may not be pleasant to contend with depending on the reader's background.
It is excellently written, but by no means a light read. If you put in the time and effort, you will come out on the other side with a great foundation, and deep understanding and mastery of the topics.
However, it's definitely not an introductory book, and some background in math will be very helpful.
I'd also check out these threads:
Ask HN: Best Mathematics book for complete noobie?
Ask HN: good math books
Ask HN: Learning advanced math
I own this book and while I do agree it's a great book for getting a 10000 foot view about topics in mathematics it's not really a book one read to learn the math that the poster is asking for.
I agree with another post here that said studying is doing problems and being able to do them again a week later without having to consult the text again.
PCM isnt a good book for learning calculus, discrete math, probability or statistics( what the posters wants to learn) simply because it isn't designed to teach them. There are no problems/solutions in the book to try.
If you really want one book then I'd recommend Concrete Mathamatics http://www.amazon.com/Concrete-Mathematics-Foundation-Comput...
by Graham, Knuth and Patashnik. It has relevant topics and problem sets that you can work through to see if you truly did learn anything when reading it.
which is an enjoyable book, but which presupposes a fairly strong background in math.
An easier book that is good preparation for computer science is Mathematics: A Discrete Introduction,
which is very readable and full of information that will get you ready for computer science concepts and for other math reading.
Browse the books on this bibliography page
for lots of suggestions compiled by someone deeply interested in computer science.
This is, in my opinion, required reading on the same level as SICP for people who are serious programmers - at least those with a weak math background.
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