See  for an excellent summary of the birth of the transistor.
- R. Hodeson, Crystal Fire (on the invention of the transistor), http://amzn.to/1RictfF
- T.R. Reid, The Chip (on the IC), http://amzn.to/1Hdbu8w
- E.W. Pugh, IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems, (on the evolution of computer architecture), http://amzn.to/1NKZcWQ
Also, as others have mentioned, Soul of a New Machine is awesome.
I feel like you may be asking about computer science, though, not computer hardware. If so, pickings are slim. Two that stand out are:
- S. Rosenberg, Dreaming in Code, http://amzn.to/1HdbJk1 (Not really a history of code, just the history of a single project)
- M. Campbell-Kelly, From Airline Reservations to Sonic the Hedgehog, http://amzn.to/1RicYpS (which, while not quite as amazing as the others, is the only history of the software industry as a whole I know of.)
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