* Anonymity - "the feeling that employees get when they realize that their manager has little interest in them a human being and that they know little about their lives, their aspirations and their interests."
* Irrelevance - "which takes root when employees cannot see how their job makes a difference in the lives of others. Every employee needs to know that the work they do impacts someone’s life--a customer, a co-worker, even a supervisor--in one way or another."
* Immeasurement - "the inability of employees to assess for themselves their contribution or success. Employees who have no means of measuring how well they are doing on a given day or in a given week, must rely on the subjective opinions of others, usually their managers’, to gauge their progress or contribution."
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